After a month of tough negotiations, the eighth NPT Review Conference concluded on Friday 28 May with an agreement welcomed unanimously by the 189 member-states to the Treaty. The final declaration restates the vital role of the NPT as the cornerstone of the non-proliferation regime. It has also revived the importance of the International Atomic Energy Agency after a period of exacerbated critics.
The negotiations into the three main committees (disarmament, non-proliferation and peaceful use of nuclear energy) have been conducted from the beginning with the same and unique goal: make significant progress during a positive era for the disarmament and non-proliferation issues. However the realpolitik has overtaken the statement of principles. Thus the five permanent states of the UN security council (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United-States) slowed down the adoption of deadlines about their disarmament process. At the same time the states of Non-aligned movement defended their inalienable right to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their right to withdraw from the Treaty.