The SSR is today one of the axes of intervention for the bilateral and multilateral donors in the post-conflict African countries. The analysis of the strategic approaches as well as interventions carried out in Burundi and in RD Congo shows a shift between the objectives and the practices on the ground. Thus, contrary to the holistic approach preached in the official documents, the SSR programmes which are implemented are restricted to the support to the reform of the army and the police force. However, the main challenge is the development of operational approaches which would allow for the SSR to become part of coherent programmes of (re)construction of the public institutions and an effective democratic governance.
Key words : SSR, Africa, DAC, OECD, UN, EU, conflicts, States, Burundi, DRC