Several constraints such as the need to restore its image on the international scene and to be more effective in Afghanistan led to the adoption by the NATO of a new strategic concept. Concerning Afghanistan, it became obvious that the use of military force alone failed: Al Qaeda and the taliban are still active in the country but also in Pakistan and the increasing number of ISAF blunders made it difficult for the local population to maintain their trust in the international coalition. The current goal is not to win this war but rather not to lose it. For this purpose, a comprehensive civilian/military approach should be adopted for the NATO missions. A more coherent action can also be achieved through deeper relations with partners such as the European Union and Russia.
Key words : NATO strategic concept, Afghanistan, Russia, the European Union, Euro-Atlantic security.