Despite numerous existing instruments of controls on small arms and light weapons (SALW), today, their implementation remains weak. Indeed, since the UN Firearms Protocol, the States Parties provided normative improvements to try to regulate these weapons, but the means used on the field are insufficient for an efficient implementation. Today, the States should study how the existing practices could be effectively applied on the field, just as they should go beyond the existing provisions and take complementary actions to achieve a better control on the SALW. After eight years of existence, the Document of the OSCE deserves to be analyzed from this point of view.
Key words : Instruments, control, SALW, OSCE, United Nations, Protocol.