The eighth Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons will be held in May 2010. After forty years of implementation, the NPT suffers a deep crisis of trust due to the development of the international geopolitical context and the risks of proliferation. During the preparatory meetings, States Parties reaffirmed their commitment to the NPT and asked for a bigger compliance with the obligations of the Treaty and for a strengthening of the non-proliferation regime. Recent global initiatives, indicating an universal awareness of the need to pursue a global disarmament program and to avoid the emergence of new nuclear states, are the sign a possible positive outcome at the end of the Conference.
Key words : Non-proliferation treaty, disarmament, civil nuclear, IAEA, universalization, withdrawal